Những nhóm thực phẩm cần cho trẻ suy dinh dưỡng

Can thiệp dinh dưỡng bằng các nhóm thực phẩm phù hợp, giàu dinh dưỡng là cách giúp trẻ mau thoát khỏi thể trạng suy dinh dưỡng.

Theo Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới (WHO), các bệnh nhiễm khuẩn và chế độ nuôi dưỡng kém là 2 nguyên nhân dẫn đến tình trạng suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi ở trẻ nhỏ. Hậu quả là trẻ kém phát triển cả về thể lực lẫn trí tuệ. Khi trưởng thành, trẻ suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi có chiều cao thấp, nguy cơ tử vong cao hơn, dễ mắc bệnh và lao động kém hơn trẻ bình thường. Đối với bé gái, khả năng trở thành người phụ nữ thấp còi và sinh con suy dinh dưỡng cũng cao hơn.

Tại Việt Nam, khoảng 25% trẻ em dưới 5 tuổi bị suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi. Những trẻ rơi vào nhóm có nguy cơ cao gồm trẻ sinh non, trẻ suy dinh dưỡng bào thai (sinh đủ tháng nhưng cân nặng dưới 2.500g), trẻ bị dị tật bẩm sinh, trẻ rối loạn tiêu hóa kéo dài, trẻ nhiễm khuẩn đường hô hấp và tiêu hóa, trẻ còi xương, trẻ được nuôi dưỡng không hợp lý.

Những nhóm thực phẩm cần cho trẻ suy dinh dưỡng - ảnh 1

Theo Tiến sĩ, bác sĩ Nguyễn Anh Tuấn – Giảng viên Đại học Y Dược TP HCM, bổ sung dinh dưỡng đúng cách sẽ giúp trẻ nhanh thoát khỏi tình trạng suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi. Việc can thiệp dinh dưỡng phải đảm bảo 4 nguyên tắc dưới đây.

– Thực phẩm giàu năng lượng và đầy đủ dưỡng chất: Trẻ thấp còi cần bổ sung đầy đủ 4 nhóm dưỡng chất gồm đạm, tinh bột, béo, các vitamin và khoáng chất. Cha mẹ nên chế biến hợp khẩu vị của trẻ, ưu tiên các thực phẩm giàu năng lượng như thịt, trứng, tôm, cua, cá… Ngoài ra, cần chú ý cung cấp các vi chất thiết yếu bởi phần lớn trẻ suy dinh dưỡng đều thiếu hụt chúng.

– Thực phẩm thân thiện với hệ tiêu hóa: Trẻ suy dinh dưỡng thường có hệ tiêu hóa yếu hoặc kém hấp thu. Vì vậy, mẹ nên chọn các thực phẩm dễ hấp thu, có lợi cho đường ruột và hệ tiêu hóa.

– Thực phẩm tăng cường hệ miễn dịch: Sức đề kháng của trẻ thấp còi thường yếu hơn các bạn cùng trang lứa. Vì vậy, chế độ ăn của trẻ nên giàu các thực phẩm giúp tăng cường hệ miễn dịch, chống nhiễm trùng.

– Thực phẩm hỗ trợ phát triển trí não: Không chỉ yếu về thể lực và tầm vóc, trẻ suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi còn kém về trí tuệ. Khẩu phần ăn dành cho nhóm đối tượng này cần giàu dưỡng chất hỗ trợ phát triển trí não, giúp bé phát triển toàn diện.

Ngoài các thực phẩm có trong khẩu phần ăn hàng ngày, bé cũng nên bổ sung các sản phẩm dinh dưỡng đặc chế dành cho trẻ suy dinh dưỡng thấp còi. Sản phẩm cần phải đảm bảo 4 tiêu chí trên, giúp trẻ tăng cân và chiều cao; tăng cường sức đề kháng; hỗ trợ tiêu hóa và hấp thu, đồng thời phát triển não bộ.

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